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Oilseeds are also important in animal nutrition as they are used in animal feed. Because of economic and nutritional reasons (e.g. a better price can be obtained by making the oilseeds available to the human food market, and the presence of naturally occurring toxic compounds and antinutrients), only a small proportion of oilseeds are fed to animals as whole seeds. However, oilseed meal, which is a by-product of processing the seeds for oil, is used extensively in animal feeds and is therefore an important economic aspect of oilseed production.

Compound feeds are manufactured from a mixture of feed materials designed to achieve pre-determined performance objectives among the animals. These raw materials are obtained from a wide variety of sources. Hence, this industry provides a major market for EU cereals, oilseeds and pulses. Some feed materials are obtained from the co-products of the food industry. Other important ingredients which cannot be grown in sufficient quantity in the EU are imported from third countries.

Since the EU ban on the use of MBM began; the EU has largely replaced the loss of MBM by using additional volumes of other protein sources, mainly soy meal, the vast majority of which has been imported.

The increased demand for white meat around the world over the last 30 years has helped to fuel a large increase in the demand for high quality feedstuffs for these livestock sectors. This outlines the relationship between oilseed meals and intensive livestock production, which will continue to encourage increased production of oilseeds meals as a protein source.

Oilseeds meals as protein sources

A breakdown of the main ingredients used in the manufacture of compound feed in the EU is shown in Table 1. As you can see Cereals, which account for almost half of all ingredients incorporated, are the main ingredients used in animal feeds mainly as a carbohydrate energy source. Oilseed meals and cakes (such as soy meal) are the second most important group of ingredients in animal feed, which are mainly used as primary source of protein.

Table 1: EU compound feed production by main ingredient



As illustrated in Table 2 Soybean meal is the most used and preferred protein source in the EU animal feed sector accounting for 68% of total protein material used (in protein equivalent terms).

No other vegetable protein sources used (maize gluten feed, rapeseed meal, dried forage, pulses, or sunflower meal) come near soybean meal in terms of importance.

This importance of soybean meal reflects its high level of protein in relation to all other, consistent availability and price competitiveness and its higher level of lysine compared to other vegetable-based products like rapeseed meal (giving it a higher level of digestibility). It is particularly attractive as an ingredient for feeds used in the pig and poultry sectors. In the ruminant sector, protein content is less crucial and other meals like rapeseed meal tend to be more readily substituted for soya.

Table 2: Use of protein material by the EU animal feed sector



Most protein sources are considered to be largely interchangeable from the point of view of feed manufacturers and hence, price tends to be the key determinant influencing which meals are used. Nevertheless, different oilseed meals have different nutritional values and digestibility. Some (notably soybean meal) are considered to be a necessary ingredient in certain compound feeds (i.e. demand is less price responsive than direct substitute ingredients), whilst others tend to be used only when price considerations allow.

The main reason for the dominance of soybean meal as a protein ingredient is its relatively high protein content of 44-46% (see table 3). In contrast, rapeseed meal has a lower protein level (34-38%) and higher fibre content (this means it has a slightly lower level of energy content) relative to soybean meal.

A summary of some of the key features of various oilseed meals as protein sources is presented in Table 3.

Table 3: Main protein sources used in animal feed: some key features



The nutritional composition of feed will vary according to which specific livestock type it is served. Thus it varies by animal type, age of animal and the purpose it is being raised (e.g. eggs, meat, milk). In general, non-ruminants like pigs and poultry require protein rich feeds whilst ruminants require feeds with higher fibre and energy content.

As indicated above, in terms of preferences for different protein sources, soybean meal is the most used source and is generally considered as the standard against which alternatives are measured against. General preference for soya reflects the following:

  • Its high level of protein relative to all other sources (with the exceptions of fishmeal and MBM);
  • Abundant and consistent availability;
  • Consistent price competitiveness relative to alternatives – this does, however varies with time;
  • It has a higher level of lysine (but slightly lower levels of methionine and cystine) than other vegetable-based products like rapeseed meal. The amino acid composition in soybean meal is nearly comparable to that of milk protein and complementary to the amino acid profile of maize.
  • Overall these are the amino acids most deficient in cereals hence the desirability for incorporating oilseeds with cereals. Soya’s higher level of lysine than other protein-based vegetable alternative like rapeseed meal means that overall (and despite slightly lower levels of methionine and cystine) it has a higher level of digestibility than other vegetable-based protein meals used in a feed ration.
  • It is therefore particularly attractive as an ingredient for feeds used in the pig and poultry sectors. In the ruminant sector, this is less vital and hence other meals like rapeseed meal tend to be more readily substitutes for soya in the ruminant feed sector.